Saturday, October 22, 2011

Complex Ecosystmes



The World Bank estimates that over 1.6 billion people depend on forests for thier livelihood and the worth of forest products traded in internationally in 2004 was estimated at US$327bil.

Forests are complex ecosystems that give us:

Products: Food, freshwater, fuel, fibre, biochemicals and genetic resources.

Regulating services: Climate regulation, disease regulation, water purification and pollination.

Cultural services: spiritual and religious, recreation and ecotourism, aesthetics, inspiration, educational and cultural heritage.

Supporting services: Soil formation, nutrient cycling and primary production.

The United Nations estimates that about 1,300sqkm of forests are lost globally every year due to conversion to agricultural land, unusustainable timber harvesting, unsustainable land management practices and poor land use planning.

According to the State of the worls'd Forest 2011 by the Food and Agriculture Organisation, forests cover just over four billion ha or 31% of earth's land area. Of these, primary forests (Undisturbed native natural forests) make up for 36% but have reportedly decreaed by more than 40 million ha in the past decade. In contrast, planted forests have grown in size and now accounts for close to 7% of total forested areas.

How Malaysian manage their Forest

This article will show how malaysia people manage their forest in the country.

How Malaysia Forest Are Managed

Tuesday, October 18, 2011

Tips to save petrol

1. Pump Petrol In The Morning

When the ground temperature is still cold. The reason is the colder the ground is, the more dense the petrol is! When the ground gets warmer " petrol expands,so buying in the afternoon or in the evening returns lesser litre you ore buying.


2 Fill up when your tank is half full

The more fuel you hove in your tank the less air occupying its empty space. petrol evaporates faster than you con imagine. Petroleum storage tanks have on internal floating root. This roof serves as zero clearance between the petrol and the atmosphere, so it minimizes the evaporation.


3. Don not squeeze the trigger of the nozzle to a fast mode when you are filling up petrol

In slow mode you should be pumping on low speed, thereby minimizing the vapours that are created while you ore pumping. ,

All hoses at thepump hove o vapour return. If you ore pumping on the fast rate, some of the liquid that goes to your tank becomes vapour. ,

Those vapours ore being sucked up and back into the underground storage tank so you're getting less worth for your money.Make every drop

counts - don't pump until the tank overflows; you pay for the petrol. Always tell the attendant to set the pump to auto-stop.


4. Start up the car properly

With today's cars, it is not necessary to prime the engine first by pumping the accelerator pedal repeatedly. Do not crank the engine excessively. This only wastes fuel.When starting the engine, idle it no more than 30 seconds to warm it up. An engine will worm up foster on the rood.

However, avoid sudden accelerotion before the engine has warmed up sufficiently.


5. Do not fill up, If there is a fuel truck pumping into the storage tanks

The petrol will be stirred up and you might pick up some of the dirt that normally settles on the bottom.